There were several families in Frankfurt with the name Wertheim or Wertheimer, and they originated from Wertheim am Main. However, the most famous Wertheimer family, also known as Wertheimber, descended from the famous imperial court factor and chief rabbi, Samson Wertheimer, who lived in Vienna from 1684 to 1742. At that period, the family was one of the richest and most respected in the German Empire.
Originally from Worms the family became centred in Vienna towards the end of the 17th century. A daughter of Samson Wertheimer lived in Frankfurt and was married to the banker Moses Löb Isaak zur Kann. Samson Wertheimer had the Steinernes Haus built for his stepson, Isaac Nathan Oppenheimer. After 1769, two further members of the family, Zacharias Isaac and Elias Isaac Wertheimer, lived in Frankfurt and carried on a substantial business in notes and gilt-edged securities. Many members of the family became court factors and later bankers. The family possessed an extensive network of connections, both family and commercial. Even in the 19th century the Wertheimers were leaders in the gold trade, and the E & L Wertheimer Bank in Frankfurt was one of the town's most important financial institutions.